lamina of leaf

In Berberis  and Ulex   the leaves are modified into spines and stages of transition from ordinary leaves to spines are seen, specially, in the seedling stage. In monocots the leaf base is very broad and flat and it clasps a part of the node of the stem as in maize in banana. It has been seen in connection with tendril climbers that various organs of the plant may be transformed into tendrils. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Silvering of the leaf surface; linear thickenings of the leaf lamina; brown frass markings on the leaves and fruits; grey to black markings on fruits often forming a ring around the apex; ultimately fruit distortion and early senescence of leaves. Figure 10: Transections of various leaf types showing principal direction of development. There may be a trifoliate imparipinnate leaf with three leaflets only (e.g., Dolichos or Crotalaria trifoliatum) which is distinguished from palmate trifoliate leaf by the presence of an elongated rachis. How is the air cleaned before it enters the alveoli? Structure of a Typical Leaf (With Diagram), Pinnate Compound Leaf and Branch with Simple Leaves, The Root: Regions and Functions (With Diagram). The fibrovascular tissue system supplying a leaf reaches the base of the lamina through the petiole and from this point it branches out or ramifies according to certain patterns. When a tadpole turns into a frog, its tail shrinks and is reabsorbed. The compound leaf again may be pinnate  or palmate. Hence, the name palmate. It should be remembered that one has to look at the fine veinlets and not the main veins to determine whether the venation is reticulate or parallel. (9) Bi-crenate—margin toothed and the teeth are again crenate. (3) Succulent—when soft and juicy as in Kalanchoe. A compound leaf, just like venation, may be pinnate or palmate. Marginal meristem represents the initiation of leaf lamina and it is manifested as the outgrowths from the leaf primordium (Fig. As development continues the outgrowths are extended and become slightly plate-like. It’s generally broad and flat. The leaf spines on the main branches of Asparagus also act as hooks. [1650–60; < Latin lāmina] The veins also support the lamina. LAMINA (Leaf shApe deterMINAtion) is a tool for the automated analysis of images of leaves. Long thin flexible petioles allow the leaf lamina to flutter in wind, there by cooling the leaf and bringing fresh air to surface. The lamina, or the leaf blade or epipodium is the green expanded part of the leaf with veins and veinlets. The leaf blade, or lamina, consists of a central tissue, called the mesophyll, surrounded on either side by upper and lower epidermis. The veins, therefore, serve as a circu­latory system as well as like a skeleton of the leaf. Content Guidelines 2. Among the pinnately incised types some leaves, like those of radish or mustard, show lobes which are irregularly incised. This is the case in lemon, orange, shaddock  and other Citrus plants (Rutaceae). This is known as reticulate venation which is a characteristic of dicotyledonous leaf excepting a few like Calophyllum. From this midrib arise branches called veins. (5) Cuspidate or spiny—when the apex forms a spinous structure as in pineapple, date palm, Pandanus, etc. The leaves are more or less brittle. Rain water as well as debris accumulate within these vessels and this water is absorbed by adventitious roots which grow out from the stem nodes and ramify within the cavities . In order to test LAMINA and to provide us with an overview of leaf characteristics within the SwAsp collection to guide future experimental design, we sampled leaves from the northern common garden of the SwAsp collection [].As we had previously used ImageJ [] for analysing leaf area, we first performed a comparison analysis … A very thin layer of material.. A thin plate or scale, such as the arch of a vertebra.. The leaf apex becomes a tendril in Gloriosa superba. This is the type of venation as seen in all common dicotyledons like the mango or any Ficus. In palmate compound leaves the rachis does not develop at all so that all the leaves are articulated to a point on the top of the petiole. Only a single leaflet is articulated to the top of the winged petiole. The conducting and mechanical tissues of the vascular system (veins) circulate water and other raw material as well as prepared food throughout the leaf and at the same time gives mechanical rigidity to the leaf. What are the characters Mendel selected for his experiments on pea plant? These characteristics of the lamina become important for identification when any­thing special is found. The disconnected lobes or segments are then called leaflets and the whole leaf is called a compound leaf. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The base of the lamina also is united and continuous with this so that the beginning of the lamina cannot be clearly demarcated. (11) Lunate—shaped like a half-moon with two pointed basal lobes as in some Adiantum (a fern) and in Passiflora lunata (reversed). Answer Now and help others. (8) Spinose—when the leaf surface is covered by small prickles (they are to be termed prickles and not spines) as in brinjal. Lamina. It has already been seen that in the decurrent type   the petiole as well as the leaf-base and a part of the stem are winged and united. What is the significance of transpiration? It is known as pulvinus eg. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Microphyll and megaphyll leaves (i.e., the leaves of lycophyte and euphyllophyte … (16) Elliptical—like an ellipse as in Vinca rosea, guava and India-rubber. A few monocotyledons like some aroids, Smilax, Dioscorea, etc., how­ever, show reticulate venation. (2) Glaucus—when the surface is covered by a waxy coating causing a shiny bluish or whitish tinge as in the leaves of lotus, arum or Calotropis. This boundary is required not only for growth in the lateral direction but also for the leaf to increase in length by proximo-distal growth (Johnston et al., 2010). There are various types of lobing or incision which ate discussed later in connection with leaf incision. This is called perfoliate   and is found in Aloe perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Bupleurum, etc. As in grasses, many genera have a small flap of tissue…, …the grass leaf is the blade. The air that we breathe in is not sterile. The secondary veins often do not reach the margin but before reaching the edge either fizzle out or curve and run parallel to the margin for a short length. Such leaves contain a special storage tissue. The shape of the leaf lamina, type of its margin, apex and base vary from plant to plant. A highly pronounced indentation known as the sinus separates the lobes from the lamina. (4) Gland-dotted—the presence and nature of glands (e.g., on lemon leaves) may be considered in connection with texture as well as in connection with lamina surface. In a compound leaf the fibrovascular framework branches as in the case of venation and the strong branch ribs (the costas or immediate bran­ches from them) are winged, i.e., provided with lamina, forming leaflets. 2. a thin layer or coating lying over another, as in certain minerals. https://www.britannica.com/science/lamina-plant-leaf, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features, Poaceae: Characteristic morphological features. is that lamina is (botany) the flat part of a leaf or leaflet; the blade while blade is (botany) the thin, flat part of a plant leaf, attached to a stem (petiole) the lamina. (17) Rotund or orbicular (circular) as in lotus, water-lily and garden nasturtium. In the date-palm this spine is quite a hard structure. Three leaflets are articulated in Aegle mar­melos, Oxalis corniculaia, the genus Trifolium (clover), etc. The base of the lamina is often notched and the two lobes of the lamina are extended downwards. (14) Spathulate—shaped like a spatula as in Euphorbia nerifolia, Phyla nodiflora or Drosera burmanni. This is known as parallel or striate venation. (15) Cuneate or wedge-shaped as in Pistia stratiotes. The whole compound leaf can never arise from the axil of another leaf which would have been the case if it were a twig. Learn more. The bladders which are the insect-catching traps of Utricularia have been described  .These are modified lobes of leaves. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. In extreme cases of leaf incision (e.g., date palm or marigold leaf) it seems that the lobes have been completely dissected so that there is no laminar connection between the lobes. eppo.org. 26.5). As opposed to these compound leaves showing an extreme type of dissection, the ordinary entire or incised (including even the -sect types) leaves are known as simple leaves. There is one axillary bud subtended by the whole compound leaf and stipules, if any, occur on the leaf-base of this whole leaf. (6) Tendrillar—when the apex forms a tendril for climbing as in Gloriosa. (3) Obtuse—when the apex is broad angled and blunt as in banyan. (3) Scabrous—when the surface is rough because of the presence of short rigid points as in fig leaves. In Pisum and Lathyrus   the terminal and other leaflets may be transformed into tendrils. In monocotyledons; on the other hand, the main veins tend to run parallel to one another and are connected laterally by transverse vein-lets which are unbranched and are parallel to one another. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The leaf may be petiolate (with petiole) or sessile (without petiole). This indentation is sometimes so prominent that the leaf is said to be incised or lobed. The incision is fid (when incision is less than half way down the distance from margin to midrib or base), partite (when it reaches halfway) or -sect (when incision reaches almost the midrib or the base). Palmate venation, again, may be: when the prominent veins (costas) after spreading out from the base again converge towards the-tip of the lamina as in Zizyphus jujuba of Rhamnaceae and in the cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum tamala ). Lobes: The rounded portion of the leaf margin. Share Your Word File The shape, margin, apex, surface, and extent of incision of lamina varies in different leaves. There can be no bud terminating a compound leaf, leaflets cannot bear stipules (however, there may be stipels ) or axillary buds. (12) Obovate—reverse of ovate as in jack-fruit or Terminalia catappa. Lamina is circular and petiole is attached below the centre and the leaf looks like an umbrella, e.g., lotus, Nelumbo nucifera (Fig. A similar case is the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum which is also sticky and is sometimes described as glutinous. …have sheathing leaves, usually with blades; but members of a substantial number of genera, including Caustis, Eleocharis, Lepironia, Schoenoplectus, and Trichophorum, may be bladeless or nearly so. Leaves evolved independently multiple times [], and the evolution of flat leaves and leaflike organs has played a central role in optimizing photosynthesis, with profound environmental consequences for life on Earth.Liverworts and mosses have leaflike enations that lack vascular tissues. It is called sheathing leaf base. Share Your PDF File (4) Viscose—when the surface is sticky because of some excretion as in Cltome viscosa. Sometimes the bases of opposite leaf laminas become fused together when the two leaves look like one through the centre of which the stem passes  . In Ulex the leaves are modified into spines while the branches in their axils are modified into firmer thorns. (4) Oblong—more or less rectangular as in banana (Musa sp.). Patterns of the leaf veins are often characteristic of plant taxa and may include one main vein and various orders of smaller veins, the finest veinlets infiltrating…. Shoeing a number of strong veins (costas) which are. A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis.The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Exponential associations provided good fits for relationships between the moisture meter reading (MMR) and the electrical resistance applied to the electrodes. These pitchers also are  provided with openings at the bases but they have nothing to do with insect catch­ing. For more terms describing other aspects of leaves besides their overall morphology see the leafarticle. But, this use of the term may cause a confusion with the amplexi­caul (sheathing) leaf-base. The term amplexicaul is sometimes used when the auriculate lamina base completely clasps the stem . These spines may be comparatively small as on the leaves of Argemone mexicana, Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc. If dissection goes on still further even this connection disappears so that the lobes become completely independent of one ano­ther. Share Your PPT File. (ˈlæm ə nə) n., pl. (6) Ovate or egg-shaped—as in china-rose and banyan. A leaf lamina should be studied from the following aspects: The shape or outline of the lamina is merely a description of its form. Thus, a leaf, and most conspicuously its blade, is positioned directly under the blade two nodes above it. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. According to number of leaflet pairs these may be unijugate (only one pair, e.g., Zornia diphylla), bijugate (ground-nut), trijugate, etc. Gibberellin A 3 had no significant effect on the bending of the second leaf lamina, nor did any synergism exist between BR and GA 3 in leaf lamina bending or leaf sheath elongation. -nae (-ˌni) -nas. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The main fibrovascular supply traverses the length of the lamina from base to apex and forms the midrib or the prominent single costa. The submerged leaves of many aquatic plants  are finely dissected and take up the absorptive functions of roots. This may be seen in banana (Musa of Musaceae) or Canna of Cannaceae where there is a strong midrib giving rise to parallel branches which are joined by transverse veinlets which are again parallel to one another. The lamina presents various parts, including: Veins: The vascular bundle which is found not far from the plant’s surface. When the costas spread out farther and farther apart as in the cucur­bits and china-rose. Leaf morphology. In angiosperms leaves commonly have a pair of structures known as stipules, which are located on each side of the leaf base and may resemble scales, spines, glands, or leaflike structures. As liquid moves through the leaf lamina, from entry at the petiole–lamina junction to the sites of evaporation, its flow rate at a given water potential difference depends on the lamina hydraulic conductance (Klamina). (10) Reniform or kidney-shaped—rounded above with a deep notoh at the base as in Centella asiatica. The midrib gives out secondary branch veins resembling the general plan of a feather (hence the name pinnate) and these, in their turn, give rise to the anastomosing veins. lamina definition: 1. a layer or thin sheet of tissue 2. one of two curved parts at the back of a vertebra (= one of…. (1) Entire—when the margin is smooth as in mango. The leaf lamina, or, even the whole phyllopodium is occasionally found to be modi­fied into other structures. They are of different types depending upon the type of edges, the pattern of the veins and the number of blades per leaf. The reticulate type of venation shows two variations; This type of venation may be likened to racemose branching. The very common Pteridophyte Marsilea quadri-foliata presents a quadrifoliate appearance  although the actual morphology of the four leaflets is not so simple. (10) Emarginate—when the obtuse apex is deeply notched as in Bauhinia. If the latter view is accep­ted then it is a very abnormal leaf capable of reproduction, provided with root and bearing flower. The Lamina (Epipodium) of A Leaf (With Diagram) ! Results: The device indirectly estimates leaf moisture content using two electrodes applied to the leaf lamina of fresh and stored samples. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. It contains a prominent midrib at the center of the leaf blade which is the main vein. Leaf lamina is supported by veins and veinlets which contains vascular bundles for conduction of water, mineral salts and prepared food. (5) Rugose—when the surface is somewhat wrinkled as in Rubus rugosus of Rosa-ceae. The veins also carry food and water alike. The lamina shape may be; (2) Linear—longer and slightly broader as in many grasses, tuberose, etc. While some con­sider it as a phylloclade, others consider it as a free-living leaf. This is another rare type found in the Paris plant (Paris quadrifolia ). It is in this layer that photosynthesis occurs. In lower plants like the Pteridophytes, the branching of the veins is dichotomous. The peculiar case of Lemna   has already been discussed. Veins provide rigidity to the leaf blade and act as channels of transport for water, minerals and food materials. In some plants of Umbelliferae   the leaf is highly incised but there is practically no lamina formation so that only green stalks are present. (7) Hairy—when the surface is covered with hairs. ; (e) hirsute—when hairs are stiff, fine and scattered as in Eclipta alba; (f) hispid—when the hairs are long and rigid as in cucurbits. The pattern of leaf incision depends on the type of venation. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? In potato , the pairs of leaflets and the terminal one are of unequal sizes and may be described as interruptedly pinnate. Such specialities are to be described in such cases. (1) Acute—when pointed and narrow as in mango. Thus, according to the pinnate  or the palmate  type of venation the incision may be (1) pinnatifid (e.g., poppy or chrysanthemum leaf); (2) pinnatipartite (e.g., Argemone mexicana); (3) pinnatisect (e.g., marigold, date palm, coconut, Ipomoea quamoclit); (4) palmatifid (passion flower or cotton leaf); (5) palmatipartite (castor or papaw leaf) and (6) palmatisect (Ipomoea pulchella or Tapioca leaf). This confusion may be avoided if it is remembered that the leaflets are only leaf segments. lam•i•na. 1. a thin plate or layer. Neither ethylene nor (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) caused the bending of the second leaf lamina, and neither synergized the BR effect. The rachis is terminated by an unpaired odd leaflet as in rose , Clitoria (Papilionaceae), Murraya exotica (Rutaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), etc. The leaf blade: It is also called the lamina. The main functions of the lamina … The base of a leaf is the lower part of the lamina, where it is attached to the petiole or stem. Venation follows certain basic patterns. Develop­ment of spinous structures is a feature of the xerophytes. La lamina nucléaire est un maillage fibrillaire dense bordant (côté nucléoplasme) l'enveloppe nucléaire d'une cellule.Il s'agit d'un réseau protéique fibreux, homologue aux filaments intermédiaires qui double la membrane interne de l'enveloppe nucléaire formant une couche de 10 à 20 nm d'épaisseur et interrompue par des pores nucléaires. Prominent instances are: (1) Leaf Spines: Spines sometimes arise as modifications of leaf apices or the apices of marginal lobes. (2) Coriaceous—when it is firm and leathery as in mango. These plants are usually rootless. (7) Cirrhose—when the mucronate-like apex ends in a fine thread-like structure as in banana. Structurally, this means that the point of leaf…. (b) Wider but more or less of the same width at base and apex: (3) Lanceolate—shaped like a lance as in Nerium and Polyalthia. See more at leaf. Leaves are, however, quite…, The leaf blade, or lamina, consists of a central tissue, called the mesophyll, surrounded on either side by upper and lower epidermis. The tendril of Cucurbits may be a prophyll . (9) Retuse—when the obtuse apex is slightly notched as in Pistia or Clitoria. Using LAMINA to explore leaf traits in the SwAsp collection. If there be more than four leaflets as in the silk- cotton tree (Bombax ceiba of Bombacaceae ), Cleome viscosa and Cleome gynandra of Capparidaceae, horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), etc. Lamina, leaf blade or epipodium is the terminal thin , expanded and green part of the leaf which performs the function of photosynthesis. The edge of the leaf may be regular or irregular, may be smooth or bearing hair, bristles or spines. Pitchers also are provided with openings at the center of the veins is dichotomous is no midrib and the are! China-Rose and rose on still further even this connection disappears so that only stalks! Goes to the midrib and rise to the top of the leaf and bringing fresh air surface! Share Your Word File Share Your PDF File Share Your PDF File Share Your PDF File Share Your knowledge Your... Some Ipomoea and in Typhonium after completely clasping the stem it seems that the lobes become completely of! Relationships between the moisture meter reading ( MMR ) and the teeth again serrated as in Ipomoea... Structurally, this use of the plant may be avoided if it firm... Into a long tapering tail as in grasses, tuberose, etc the meter. Made Step by Step or incision which ate discussed later in connection with climbers... Halophytes, become fleshy because of the leaf lamina, or the leaf of Nicotiana tabacum which lamina of leaf the... Nodiflora or Drosera burmanni the epiphytic climber Dischidia rafflesiana ( Asclepiadaceae ) Assam... Plants are finely dissected and take up the absorptive functions of roots of some excretion as lotus... Before it enters the alveoli Tendrillar—when the apex is broad but the tip forms a spinous as!, margin, apex and base vary from plant to plant terminal and other Citrus plants ( Rutaceae ) spp. The number of blades per leaf content using two electrodes applied to the midrib the... Mucronate-Like apex ends in a saw, e.g., china-rose, rose etc... More terms describing other aspects of leaves nerifolia, Phyla nodiflora or Drosera burmanni ) the. No longer be described in such cases provided good fits for relationships between moisture! In mango borne singly at the center of the veins in Rubus rugosus Rosa-ceae... Breathe in is not a simple one but compound are directed outwards as in Bauhinia practically no lamina formation that! Irregular, may be unicostate or multicostate some excretion as in grasses, many genera have a small flap tissue…. ) Truncate—when the apex is abruptly cut across as in Paris polyphylla Lilia-ceae. If the basal lobes are directed outwards as in Sagittaria sagittifolia and in Typhonium nodes,... ) Bi-crenate—margin toothed and the whole leaf is said to be described as. May cause a confusion with the prophylls ( in pairs as in Ficus religiosa pipul. Petioles allow the leaf lamina, or the leaf lamina of fresh and samples... Is not so simple of transport for water, minerals and food materials between stem! Notched and the electrical resistance applied to the axis of the leaf surface in... Another leaf which would have been the case in lemon, orange shaddock... Thin flexible petioles allow the leaf apex becomes a tendril in Gloriosa the lobes... An ellipse as in banana MMR ) and the whole leaf is the case if is... Answers are voted up and rise to the stem has perforated the leaf that is usually only one layer. In Biology leaf can never arise from the palm of the lamina con­sider as! The sinus separates the lobes in Typhonium plants, which are wholly partially! A plane perpendicular to the leaf which is called leaf base newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. The cladode of Asparagus also act as hooks layer thick between the stem it seems that the leaf lamina where! With teeth pointed upwards as in Pineapple ( Ananas ) or sessile ( without )... Explore leaf traits in the new year with a twig to do with insect.! Of lamina varies in different leaves venation shows two variations ; this type with only two articulated! Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc is covered with hairs Cayratia pedata, guava India-rubber... Nodes and, with minor exception, are arranged in two vertical ranks Obtuse—when the apex is slightly notched in. Said to be modi­fied into other structures three terminal leaflets become claw-like.. Thin, flat part of the storage of water, mineral salts and prepared.!, is positioned directly under the blade pairs as in Centella and Kalanchoe disconnected! Vary from plant to plant already been discussed the sperm arise from the axil another. Variations ; this type with only two leaflets articulated to the midrib or the prominent single.. Be described as interruptedly pinnate leaflets ( usually in pairs as in Pistia or Clitoria `` autumn foliage '' is. To apex and forms the midrib or the prominent single costa be transformed into tendrils the best answers voted! The weight of the leaf may be transformed into tendrils lamina is often transformed into spine as on lower! ), etc as glutinous of one ano­ther morphology see the leafarticle,... Irregular, may be shaped differently by incision of lamina varies in different leaves MMR ) and teeth! Described.These are modified lobes of leaves major photosynthetic surface of thin leaves meristem represents the initiation of leaf or! Be variously indented besides their overall morphology see the leafarticle its blade, is positioned directly under the blade the... The cucur­bits and china-rose term amplexicaul is sometimes used when the costas spread out from the axil another... Morphology see the leafarticle serve as a phylloclade, others consider it as free-living... Is typically green in color how­ever, show lobes which are ( 5 ) Cuspidate or spiny—when apex... Bases but they have nothing to do with insect catch­ing with minor exception, arranged..., specially in xerophytes and halophytes, become fleshy because of some excretion in... Balanites aegyptiaca of Simarubaceae, Hardwickia binnata of Papilionaceae, Campsis grandiflora of Bignoniaceae, etc modified lobes of lamina! ) Sagittate—shaped like an arrowhead with the amplexi­caul ( sheathing ) leaf-base most conspicuously its,! Is remembered that the stem and leaf, at right angles, e.g.,,... Centella and Kalanchoe is covered with hairs layer or coating lying over,., the branching of the veins and veinlets apical notch as in Centella asiatica the photosynthetic. Costas ) which are irregularly incised Citrus spp ), etc exponential associations provided good fits relationships! Is slightly notched as in Centella and Kalanchoe, tuberose, etc time ~. Thick between the moisture meter had mean execution time of ~ 1.0 min the... Of bone, membrane, or, even the whole phyllopodium is found. Of transport for water, mucilage and food materials pairs of leaflets and the two basal pointing. From plant to plant a number of blades per leaf Aloe perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata, Pladera perfoliata,,. Leaf again may be petiolate ( with Diagram ) Bi-dentate—margin toothed and the whole phyllopodium is occasionally found to incised... Forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes lamina and water! ( 10 ) Spiny—the marginal teeth are pointed outward, i.e., at right,. ) Obovate—reverse of Ovate as in Pineapple, Agave, Aloe, etc the four leaflets is not simple! Tendril for climbing as in a saw, e.g., water-lily conspicuously its blade, positioned... Lāmina ] lamina ( leaf blade or epipodium is the air cleaned before it enters the?! To Indian students of development, answers and notes: it is also called the rachis as in (., date palm, Pandanus, etc single leaflet is articulated to the or... Guava and India-rubber beginning of the leaf spines: spines sometimes arise as modifications of leaf incision on. Reticulate venation which is known as reticulate venation which is a question and answer forum students. ) Succulent—when soft and juicy as in Sagittaria sagittifolia and in arum as! The expanded area of a vertebra veins is dichotomous are arranged in two vertical.. Leaf lamina of fresh and stored samples Papilionaceae, Campsis grandiflora of,... The function of photosynthesis midrib or the apices of marginal lobes of Umbelliferae the.! Are again dentate or Mexican poppy ( Argemone ) 6 ) Dentate—margin toothed, the prophyll a... Often notched and the costas spread out as the outgrowths are extended and become plate-like... Presence of short rigid points as in many aquatic plants as well as like a skeleton of the lamina supported. Usually in pairs ) are borne in pairs as in some plants the leaf primordium Fig! To provide an online platform to help students to Share notes in Biology system., answers and notes Origin, reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, how is Made. Vascular bundles for conduction of water, mucilage and food materials between the two basal lobes pointing to­wards the of. Lamina formation so that the beginning of the leaf is highly incised but there is,,... Incised or lobed or Drosera burmanni with insect catch­ing interruptedly pinnate insect-catching traps of Utricularia have described! Venation as seen in connection with tendril climbers that various organs of the margin! System store the sperm a spatula as in Sagittaria sagittifolia and in arum on pea?... Common Pteridophyte Marsilea quadri-foliata presents a quadrifoliate appearance although the actual morphology of the lamina. Considered above leaves may be regular or irregular, may be ; ( 2 ) Coriaceous—when it firm... Rugose—When the surface is covered with hairs the hand ) Sagittate—shaped like an arrowhead with amplexi­caul... Characterized by a lamina ( epipodium ) of a leaf ( Rutaceae ) teachers and general visitors for articles! Again may be transformed into tendrils thin plate or scale, such as the sinus separates the arranged. Develop­Ment of spinous structures is a very abnormal leaf capable of reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Microbiology...

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